Clinical aspects of endothelial NO-synthase gene polymorphism in professional sportsmen (literature review)

Authors

  • S. N. Malakhova Zaporizhzhia State Medical University,

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14739/2310-1237.2016.2.80896

Keywords:

Nitric Oxide, Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase, Genetic Polymorphism

Abstract

The article deals the questions of properties and biological role of nitric oxide molecule, which is characterized with vasodilating, stress limiting and neurotransmitter properties, and participates in reactions of oxidative stress, glutamate and calcium cascade and inflammation. Researches of the relationship of endothelial NO-synthase and the risk of cardiovascular, ischemic and respiratory diseases in population of untrained persons and athletes continue.

The aim of this study was to establish, according to the literature, the present state of the influence of endothelial NO-synthase gene polymorphism on the formation of the physical qualities of strength, endurance and speed in professional athletes, its changes and influence on functional state of athlete.

At the present stage of development of medical genetics it is proved, that the implementation of the action of each individual isoform of the enzyme NO-synthase is caused by the presence of polymorphism. The most studied are the T-786С polymorphism of the eNOS gene promoter, G894T (Glu298Asp) polymorphism of the 7th exon, 4a/b–4th intron of eNOS, but their influence is not definitively proven, and is caused by the presence of homo- or heterozygotes.

Genetic researches among professional athletes prove the significant role of nitric oxide system in enhancing of physical working capacity, but do not allow evaluating the characteristics of this effect, taking into account multi-directional training process and the level of sports qualification, as well as predicting future professional success and the preservation of the proper functioning of the cardiovascular, respiratory and other body systems.

Conclusions. Thus, contemporary researches allow stating that oxide synthesis has a leading role in the functioning of the organism, and in particular athletes, but do not allow assessing its effects on the body of athletes of different sports qualification.

It is proved that polymorphism of the eNOS gene is associated with ischemic disease, early development of atherosclerosis, a violation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, diseases of the respiratory system and other changes in the body. But the question about changes in the functional state of the athletes of various sports qualification, depending on the polymorphism of endothelial NO-synthase, remains poorly understood.

References

Akhmineeva, A. N., Polunina, O. S., Voronina, L. P., & Sevost´yanova, I.V. (2013) Funkcional'noe sostoyanie sosudistogo e´ndoteliya pri ishemicheskoj bolezni serdca [The functional state of the vascular endothelium in coronary heart disease]. Sovremennye naukoemkie tehnologii, 4, 106. [in Russian].

Balatskiĭ, A. V., Andreenko, E. Yu., Samokhodskaia, L. M., Boĭtsov, S. A., & Tkachuk, V. A. (2013) Polimorfizm genov jendotelial'noj NO-sintazy i konneksina-37 kak faktor riska razvitija infarkta miokarda u lic bez koronarnogo anamneza [Endothelial NO synthase and connexin 37 gene polymorphisms as a risk factor for myocardial infarction in subjects without a history of coronary artery disease]. Terapevticheskij arkhiv, 5(9), 18–22. [in Russian].

Bogdanovskaya, N. V., & Malikov, N. V. (2013) Rol' sistemy sinteza oksida azota v obespechenii adaptacii organizma k sistematicheskim fizicheskim nagruzkam The role of nitric oxide synthesis system in providing systematic adaptation to physical stress Novyye podkhody k izucheniyu klassicheskikh problem, Proceedings of the 7th All-Russian School-conference on the physiology of muscles and muscle activity. Moscow. [in Russian].

Vdovenko, N. V., & Osypenko, H.A. (2012) Porushennia metabolizmu za umov aktyvatsii perekysnoho okysnennia lipidiv pid chas m’iazovoi diialnosti [Metabolism under conditions of activation of lipid peroxidation during muscle activity]. Aktualni problemy fiz. kultury i sportu, 24, 49–52. [in Ukrainian].

Vorobyova, E. N., Schumacher, G. I., Horeva, M .A., & Osipova, I. V. (2010) Disfunkciya e´ndoteliya – klyuchevoe zveno v patogeneze ateroskleroza [Endothelial dysfunction – a key element in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis]. Rossijskij kardiologicheskij zhurnal, 2, 84–91. [in Russian].

Garganeeva, N. P., Taminova, I. F., Vorozhtsova, I. N., & Burmatov, N. A. (2012) Funkcional'nye osobennosti serdechno-sosudistoj sistemy u kvalificirovannykh sportsmenov raznykh vidov sporta v zavisimosti ot intensivnosti i tipa fizicheskoj nagruzki [Functional characteristics of cardiovascular system among qualified athletes from different sports depending on training load and exercise type]. Sibirskij medicinskij zhurnal, 27(4), 47–51. [in Russian].

Drozdovska, S. B., Lysenko, O. N., Dosenko, V. E., & Ilin, V. M. (2012) Zalezhnist aerobnykh mozhlyvostei sportsmeniv vid polimorfizmiv heniv [Dependence aerobic athletes of polymorphisms of genes]. Visnyk Cherkaskoho universytetu, 2(215), 43–52. [in Ukrainan].

Kudrya, O. N., Kiriyanova, M. A., & Kapilevich, L. V. (2012) Osobennosti perifericheskoj gemodinamiki sportsmenov pri adaptacii k nagruzkam razlichnoj napravlennosti [Characteristics of peripheral hemodynamics athletes with loads of adaptation to a different direction]. Byulleten' sibirskoj mediciny, 11(3), 48–52. [in Russian].

Kuzmina, L. M. (2012) Formuvannia indyvidualnoi stiikosti sportsmeniv do hipoksii navantazhennia na etapi spetsializovanoi bazovoi pidhotovky (Avtoref. dis…kand. nauk z fiz. vykhov. ta sportu). Formation of individual athletes resistance to hypoxia during loading specialized basic training] (Extended abstract of candidate’s thesis). Kyiv. [in Ukrainian].

Linde, E. V., Akhmetov, I. I., & Ordzhonikidze, Z. G. (2014) Geneticheskie faktory i formirovanie gipertrofii miokarda levogo zheludochka u vysokokvalificirovannykh sportsmenov [Genetic factors and the formation of left ventricular hypertrophy in elite athletes]. Nauka i sport: sovremennye tendencii, 2, 32–42. [in Russian].

Osipenko, A. (2014) Rol' sistemy oksida azota v procesakh adaptacii organizma k fizicheskim zagruzkam [The role of the nitric oxide in the processes of the organism adaptation to physical load]. Nauka v Olimpijskom sporte, 1, 23–30. [in Russian].

Parakhonskij, A. P. (2010) Rol' nejronal'noj NO-sintazy v patologii serdca [The role of neuronal NO-synthase in heart disease]. Sovremennye naukoemkie tehnologii, 9, 208–212. [in Russian].

Pakhomia, N. S., Uryasev, O. M., & Shakhanov, A. V. (2014) Rol' polimorfizmov nekotorykh genov v realizacii arterial'noj gipertenzii [Some genes polymorphism role in arterial hypertension realization]. Zemskij vrach, 3–4 (24), 21–24. [in Russian].

Prystupa, L. N., & Pogorielova, A. S. (2015) Asotsiatsiia alelnykh polimorfizmiv henu endotelialnoi NO-syntazy z rozvytkom ishemichnoi khvoroby sertsia [Assosiation between endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polimorphisms and risk of coronary artery disease (review)]. J. Clin. Exp. Med. Res., 3, 375–386. [in Ukrainian].

Polunina, O. S., Akhmineeva, A. Kh., Voronina, L. P., & Sevostyanova, I. V. (2013) Geneticheskie i biokhimicheskie paralleli pri sochetanii khronicheskoj obstruktivnoj bolezni legkikh i ishemicheskoj bolezni serdca [Genetic and biochemical parallels in combination of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and ischemic heart disease]. Sibirskij medicinskij zhurnal, 120 (5), 54–56. [in Russian].

Tseluyko, V. I., Yakovleva, L. M., & Bondar, T. M. (2012) Rol polimorfizmu T-786C hena endotelialnoi NO-syntazy u porushenniakh metabolizmu oksydu azotu ta rozvytku aterosklerozu [Role of endothelial NO-synthase T-786C gene polymorphism for nitric oxide metabolism violations and development of atherosclerosis]. Ukrainskyi kardiolohichnyi zhurnal, 4, 130–134. [in Ukrainian].

Chorna, S. V. (2011) Rol mitokhondrialnoi pory v korektsii funktsionalnykh porushen sertsia pry starinni za umov aktyvatsii biosyntezu ubikhinonu ta tryvalykh fizychnykh navantazhen (Avtoref. dis…kand. biol. nauk). The role of mitochondrial pores in the correction of functional disorders of the heart during aging under conditions of ubiquinone biosynthesis and activation of prolonged physical stress] (Extended abstract of candidate’s thesis). Kyiv. [in Ukrainian].

Bailey, S. J., Vanhatalo, A., Winyard, P. G., & Jones, A. M. (2012) The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway: Its role in human exercise physiology. European Journal of Sport Science, 12(4), 309–320. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2011.635705.

Cantu-Medellin, N., & Kelley, E. E. (2013) Xanthine oxidoreductase-catalyzed reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide: Insights regarding where, when and how. Biological Chemistry and Therapeutic Applications of Nitric Oxide, 34(1), 19–26. doi: 10.1016/j.niox.2013.02.081.

Cortese-Krott, M. M., Rodriguez-Mateos, A., Sansone, R., Kuhnle, G. G., Thasian-Sivarajah, S., Krenz, T., et al. (2012) Human red blood cells at work: identification and visualization of erythrocytic activity in health and disease. Blood., 120, 4229–4237. doi: 10.1182/blood-2012-07-442277.

Copp, S. W., Hirai, D. M., Hageman, K. S., Poole, D. C., & Muschcorresponding T. I. (2010) Nitric oxide synthase inhibition during treadmill exercise reveals fiber-type specific vascular control in the rat hindlimb. Am. J. Physio.l Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol., 298(2), 478–85. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00631.2009.

Ekmekçi, A., Ozcan, K., Güngör, B., Abaci, N., Osmonov, D., Zencirci, A., et al. (2013) The relationship between endothelial nitric oxide synthase 4a/4b gene polymorphism and premature coronary artery disease. Acta Cardiol., 68(5), 464–468. doi: 10.2143/AC.68.5.2994468.

Evangelista, A. M., Rao, V. S., Filo, A. R., Marozkina, N. V., Doctor, A., Jones, D. R., et al. (2010) Direct regulation of striated muscle myosins by nitric oxide and endogenous nitrosothiols. PLoS One, 5(6), e11209. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011209.

Li, J., Wu, X., Li, X., Feng, G., He, L., & Shi, Y. (2010) The endothelial nitricoxide synthase gene asassociated with coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis. Cardiology, 116(4), 271–278. doi: 10.1159/00031606.

Li, Y. Y. (2011) Endothelial nitric oxide synthase G894T gene polymorphism and essential hypertension in the Chinese population: a meta-analysis involving 11,248 subjects. Intern. Med., 50(19), 2099–2106.

Liu, D., Jiang, Z., Dai, L., Zhang, X., Yan, C., & Han, Y. (2014) Association between the - 786T>C 1polymorphism in the promoter region of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and risk of coronary artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gene, 545(1), 175–183. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2013.09.099.

Munshi, A., Rajeshwar, K., Kaul, S., Chandana, E., Shafi, G., Anila, A. N., et al. (2010) VNTR polymorphism in intron 4 of the eNOS gene and the risk of ischemic stroke in a South Indian population. Brain Res Bull., 82(5–6), 247–50. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2010.05.008.

Martinelli, N. C., Santos, K. G., Biolo, A., La Porta, V. L., Cohen, C. R., Silvello, D., et al. (2012) Polymorphisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene in systolic heart failure: An haplotype analysis. Nitrice Oxide, 26(3), 141–147. doi: 10.1016/j.niox.2012.01.003.

Radak, Z., Zhao, Z., Koltai, E., Ohno, H., & Atalay, M. (2013) Oxygen consumption and usage during physical exercise: the balance between oxidative stress and NOS-dependent adaptive signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal, 18(10), 1208–1246. doi: 10.1089/ars.2011.4498.

Tong, Y., Yin, X., Wang, Z., Zhan, F., Zhang, Y., Ye, J., et al. (2013) A tailed primers protocol to identify the association of eNOS gene variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism with ischemic stroke in Chinese Han population by capillary electrophoresis. Gene, 517(2), 218–223. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2012.10.087.

Yang, Y., Du, K., Liu, Z., Lu, X. (2014) Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) 4b/a gene polymorphisms and coronary artery disease: evidence from a meta-analysis. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 15(5), 7987-8003.

Yujiao, Y., Kang, D., Zhengxia, L., & Xiang, L. (2014) Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) 4b/a Gene Polymorphisms and Coronary Artery Disease: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis. Int J Mol Sci., 15(5), 7987–8003. doi: 10.3390/ijms15057987.

Zhang, K., Bai, P., Shi, S., Zhou, B., Wang, Y., Song, Y., et al. (2012) The G894T polymorphism on endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene is associated with increased coronary heart disease among Asia population: evidence from a meta analysis. Thromb Res., 130, 192–197. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2012.02.015.

How to Cite

1.
Malakhova SN. Clinical aspects of endothelial NO-synthase gene polymorphism in professional sportsmen (literature review). Pathologia [Internet]. 2016Oct.27 [cited 2024Apr.21];13(2). Available from: http://pat.zsmu.edu.ua/article/view/80896

Issue

Section

Review